DISASTROUS CAMPAIGNS 413 surrender, but at a conference held under its walls General Sisianoff was treacherously assassinated. Mean- while Ganja had surrendered to Abbas Mirza, but was retaken by the Russians. The campaign dragged on with indecisive results, although the Russians occupied the greater part of the disputed territories, but they were repulsed a second time with loss from before Erivan. The Persians were anxious to engage the services of General Malcolm, but this was not permitted. He gave them, however, the wise advice to keep their artillery and newly raised infantry for the defence of fortresses, and to raise swarms of light horsemen to harass and distress the enemy. The Battle of Aslanduz, 1812.—In 1812 a decisive battle was fought. Sir Gore Ouseley, who was attempting to act as mediator, having heard that Great Britain had concluded peace with Russia, ordered the British officers to leave the Persian service, but so far yielded to Persian entreaties as to allow Christie and Lindsay to remain. The Persian army was at Aslanduz on the Araxes, and there it was surprised in' broad daylight by a Russian column consisting of only 2300 men with six guns. Christie formed up the infantry and was holding his own, when Abbas Mirza, thinking all was lost, directed him to retreat; upon his demurring, the Persian heir-apparent himself galloped up, seized the colours of a regiment and ordered the men to retire. The artillery was also compelled to follow, and but for the action of Lindsay, who dashed into the camp and seized some rounds of ammunition, would have been useless. Abbas Mirza made the disaster complete by giving wildly contradictory commands, and as a result his army was annihilated. Gallant Christie, wounded in the neck, was killed by the enemy. Lenkoran, the next Russian objective, was taken at the end of the year. After these two disasters the Persians were disheartened and thought of making peace. The Treaty of Gulistan> 1813.—At the request of the Russian Governor-General of Georgia, Sir Gore Ouseley used his good offices, and on the I2th of October, 1813, a treaty was signed. Its terms were disastrous to Persia.